Læreplantilkobling

Fag

Engelsk

Core Kjerneelementer

  • Kommunikasjon
  • Språklæring
  • Møte med engelskspråklige tekster

Cogs Tverrfaglig tema

Demokrati og medborgerskap

Folkehelse og livsmestring

Læreplan Kompetansemål

10. trinn
Engelsk
  • bearbeide egne tekster ut fra tilbakemeldinger og kunnskap om språk
VG1 SF
Engelsk
  • bruke egnede strategier i språklæring, tekstskaping og kommunikasjon
VG1 SF
Engelsk
  • vurdere og bearbeide egne tekster ut fra faglige kriterier og kunnskap om språk
VG1 SF
Engelsk
  • skrive ulike typer formelle og uformelle tekster, inkludert sammensatte, med struktur og sammenheng som beskriver, diskuterer, begrunner og reflekterer tilpasset formål, mottaker og situasjon
VG1 SF
Engelsk
  • lese, diskutere og reflektere over innhold og virkemidler i ulike typer tekster, inkludert selvvalgte tekster
VG1 SF
Engelsk
  • bruke kunnskap om grammatikk og tekststruktur i arbeid med egne muntlige og skriftlige tekster
VG1 SF
Engelsk
  • uttrykke seg nyansert og presist med flyt og sammenheng, idiomatiske uttrykk og varierte setningsstrukturer tilpasset formål, mottaker og situasjon
VG1 SF
Engelsk
  • diskutere og reflektere over form, innhold og virkemidler i engelskspråklige kulturelle uttrykksformer fra ulike medier, inkludert musikk, film og spill
VG1 SF
Engelsk
  • lytte til, forstå og bruke akademisk språk i arbeid med egne muntlige og skriftlige tekster
VG1 YF
Engelsk
  • bruke egnede strategier i språklæring, tekstskaping og kommunikasjon
VG1 YF
Engelsk
  • skape yrkesrelevante tekster med struktur og sammenheng som beskriver og dokumenterer eget arbeid tilpasset formål, mottaker og situasjon
VG1 YF
Engelsk
  • lese, diskutere og reflektere over innhold og virkemidler i ulike typer tekster, inkludert selvvalgte tekster
VG1 YF
Engelsk
  • bruke kunnskap om grammatikk og tekststruktur i arbeid med egne muntlige og skriftlige tekster
VG1 YF
Engelsk
  • uttrykke seg nyansert og presist med flyt og sammenheng, idiomatiske uttrykk og varierte setningsstrukturer tilpasset formål, mottaker og situasjon
VG1 YF
Engelsk
  • diskutere og reflektere over form, innhold og virkemidler i engelskspråklige kulturelle uttrykksformer fra ulike medier, inkludert musikk, film og spill
VG1 YF
Engelsk
  • lytte til, forstå og bruke fagterminologi muntlig og skriftlig i arbeidssituasjoner

What are action verbs?

When you are assigned a writing task, the instructions will generally include certain verbs to let you know what kind of text you are expected to produce. These verbs are called action verbs. Some action verbs in English are to reflect, to compare, to describe, to explain, to apply, to explore, and to discuss. Understanding the use of these verbs is essential when writing, but what do they really mean?

En tegnet mann med en tankeboble

Reflect

When you are asked to reflect on a given subject, it means to think carefully about the topic and examine it from all sides and perspectives. This activity also requires you to test your own thoughts and beliefs to gain greater insight and understanding on the given subject. The nice thing is that these are also one of the few academic writing assignments where you can “speak” in the first person (use “I/me/my”) in your text.

In terms of writing assignments, you may be asked to reflect on a variety of topics such as specific actions, beliefs, and ideas, along with case studies, common practices, and your own learning.

For example, you may be given an assignment in English class asking you to reflect on racism in the United States. You need to gather information on what people think and how they feel about racism, what the situation is like in the United States, and why it is so. In addition to checking your comprehension, the underlying goal of this type of assignment is to help you develop a better understanding of your own thoughts and beliefs. There are no right or wrong answers in reflection tasks.

Basic reflection skills are acquired at a very young age. For example, if you touch a hot burner, it will hurt. Touching the burner would have immediately caused you to reflect on why it hurt so much. The answer, of course, would be that you had touched a hot burner, and after that you know not to do that again.

As you have grown older, you will also reflect on your friendships from time to time. If your friend suddenly gets angry at you one day, you try to figure out (reflect on) what happened to make them angry.  Your reflection will then help you reach a new understanding of why and how the situation developed.

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Hånden til et barn prøver å ta på en varm kokeplate.

Compare

Some assignments ask you to compare two or more items, such as different texts, pictures, or a text and a movie. In these assignments you will first need to compare: identify what is similar between them, and then contrast: identify how the items differ from each other. These kinds of assignments will frequently ask you to compare two texts, two images, or a text and a video. The goal is to identify what is the same and what is different about each thing. Remember that you will need to include specific examples in your text to show exactly what you mean by similar and different as well as present an opinion on how those similarities and differences may affect your topic.

You could for instance be asked to compare an excerpt from William Shakespeare’s play “Romeo and Juliet” to a scene from the movie “Romeo + Juliet” from 1996. The story has been adapted to modern times in the movie, but you can still find similarities to the original. For instance, in the play they fight with swords but in the movie they use guns that they call swords.

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Troll gjemmer seg bak en granbusk.

Describe

To describe is often used in assignments where you are asked to give an account for or to portray something or someone. In a descriptive paragraph you should try to “paint a picture” with your words. If asked to describe a house, you should clearly explain what the house is like, using adjectives and prepositions to help the reader envision it.

In English, it is important to list your adjectives in a certain order. Most native speakers may not be able to immediately tell you the actual order if you ask them, but they will automatically correct you if you say things out of order, like putting the color before the size of an object. Saying “the red big house” instead of “the big red house” will definitely cause a native speaker to raise their eyebrows.

The correct order to follow for adjectives is:

Opinion – Size –  Age – Shape – Color – Origin – Material – Purpose

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Rødt funkishus

How can you describe?

When describing something, make sure you concretize and have a clear structure. You can use senses to describe how something smells, feels or sounds. This will make your text more vivid to the reader.

One of the easiest ways to prepare to write your paragraph is to think about organizing your text using spatial order. To take a room in your house as an example, the first step would be to choose a specific place to start your description. From there, you would move around the room following a logical pattern.

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Modern kitchen interior in the luxury residential house, with wide windows and natural light. Big bouquet of dried pink roses in the vase on the kitchen table. The view through the open door.

You may for example choose to start describing from the left side of the room and go towards the right, or you could start your description from the time you enter the room and go around in a clockwise direction until you have described the entire room.

If you change where you start describing a room, you give the reader another perspective, and they will experience the room in a different way.

Explain

Explaining a topic means giving a solid academic explanation of a case, problem, or something that you are going to research or carry out.

This type of assignment is often a little more demanding. You have to have a really good grasp of the subject that you are going to discuss. Politicians and leaders are often asked to support certain decisions and situations such as the national economy, electricity prices, and funding cuts to youth clubs.

If you are asked to write a persuasive essay on why Norway should stop looking for oil, you will need to thoroughly research the subject and have strong arguments to support your position. This assignment will require you both to explain the question and the answer in your own words, sticking solely to facts for support as much as possible.

Personal opinions and ideas are not enough on their own, and it’s not possible to simply say whatever you want. All of your arguments need to be backed up with solid facts from reliable outside sources.

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Oljeplattform foran en himmel med fiolett farge.

Apply

When you are asked to produce a text using an application approach, you will be expected to apply or use the concept given to explain an idea or specific situation. “Apply” in this sense means not only including the specific concept in what you write, but also explaining in your own words how it illustrates what you are trying to say. Students are often asked to use this technique for literature assignments.

Sample assignment prompt:

Use the following excerpt from “A Doll’s House” by Henrik Ibsen to reflect on gender roles in the 1800s.

Many students will immediately throw themselves into the reflection part of the assignment, but they forget to use the excerpt in their answer. In this case, the excerpt is just as important as your reflections on the topic, and it must be used. Remember to always read the excerpt given in these types of assignments very carefully first, and then tie it back into your answer.

In the 1800s there were many who believed that women were not worth as much as men. They were not as intelligent or valuable to society; they simply held the role of mother and housewife. We can see examples of this in “A Doll’s House” when Helmer tells Nora that she is first and foremost a mother, and that she both thinks and speaks like a child.

This is just one way of applying the excerpt in your own text.

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Ektepar fra tidlig 1900-tallet der mannen i mørke klær står foran kvinnen i hvite klær.

Explore

Exploring a topic means researching, discovering, observing, experiencing, and experimenting with an idea. Curiosity and wonder can be part of it. In some cases, this means exploring different sides of a case with an open mind and critical thinking. Having a discussion requires you to look at a situation from all sides.

Exploration assignments allow you to be both a little bit of a detective and an inventor. You have to be curious and creative and you have to arrive at new solutions and answers.

Sample assignment: 

Write an exploratory text on what would happen on Earth if the sun suddenly burnt out

Here you would need to look for information and try to find out what might happen. You will most likely not find a standard answer, and it will be important to use good and reliable sources.

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Discuss

Assignments that ask the writer to discuss a topic (e.g. Discuss the following…) are fairly similar to reflection assignments when you first start. 

To begin, you will need to go through the same process of thinking carefully about the given topic and analyze it from all sides and perspectives. However, discussions require more research to complete.

The main difference between reflection and discussion texts is that reflections allow you to express your personal opinion directly, while discussions are intended to have you demonstrate your objective critical thinking skills doing the best you can not to show personal bias.

To write a discussion text well, you must find and use relevant outside information from reliable sources to make each point you have as you discuss the result of your research and analysis of the topic. The challenge here is to remember that you can’t just put in outside information and expect the reader to understand how it explains and supports the idea you have.

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How do you discuss?

Take a closer look at this example:

Assignment Prompt
Discuss the following: should local and federal authorities be allowed to use drones and CCTV to monitor and record everything that happens in public spaces 24/7 to prevent crime?

En drone som flyr inn mot en by
Compare the two following texts:

1. Preventing crime is a constant challenge for local and federal authorities. Keeping the public safe is an important part of their job description, but it isn’t fair to record everything that happens in public areas using drones and CC TV. The cameras that are currently installed everywhere already make people feel uncomfortable. It would be even worse if they added drones. Also, you never know how the information is going to be used. Therefore, local and federal authorities should not be allowed to used drones and CC TV to film public areas 24/7.

2. Preventing crime is a constant challenge for local and federal authorities. While keeping the public safe is a key part of their job description, using drones and CCTV to monitor and film public areas 24/7 would be a significant infringement on a person’s right to privacy. The right to privacy is an important value that most people have had instilled in them since they were children. In the United States, this right is even guaranteed by the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution. Its sole purpose “is to protect people’s right to privacy and freedom from unreasonable intrusions by the government” (LII, n.d.). 

In other words, according to this amendment, people should expect not to be filmed at any time without any reason by the authorities, and not to have the authorities suddenly decide to search their house or car without just cause. If local and federal authorities were allowed to use drones and CCTV cameras to film public areas 24/7, this amendment would no longer provide any protection and prevent the unreasonable invasion of a person’s privacy. Therefore, local and public authorities should not be allowed to use drones and CC TV to monitor and film public areas 24/7.

Which text is more convincing, and why? 

The second one, right? This is the same thing that you will need to do in your own paper.

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Gammelt gulnet papir.

Sources:

  • Blanchard, K., & Root, C.:
    Ready to write 3: From paragraph to essay (3rd ed.). Pearson (2010).
    Education Inc.
  • Blanchard, K., & Root, C.:
    Ready to write 2: Perfecting paragraphs (4th ed.). Pearson (2010).
    Education
    Inc.
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